Simulating Open Die Forging

Management Summary

App. Control of a cogging press (Source: SMS Meer)
Control of a cogging press (Source: SMS Meer)

The Simufact Forming Open Die Forging application module offers simulation of open die forging processes such as cogging, radial forging, rotary swaging, shell forging, forging over mandrels, partial rotary forging, and custom defined processes.

With Simufact Forming you can simulate open die forging processes in all dimensions and for your whole product range. The software supports both hot and cold forging processes as well as pass-schedule-based closed-loop controls for a diverse range of open die forging processes.



Use the advantages of Simufact Forming for your open die forging processes

App. Pass schedule input in the simulation (cogging)
Pass schedule input in the simulation (cogging)
  • Shorter development times with fewer trial runs
  • Comprehensive process understanding
  • High process stability and quality
  • Predictions of component properties
  • Better machine utilization
  • Expansion of the product range
  • Optimum adjustment of the different process stages
  • Higher yield
  • Avoidance of forming errors and cracks
  • Closed-loop process control integrated into the simulation allows the use of production-oriented pass schedules without prior knowledge of the necessary blows,  strokes, and positions

Modeling Entire Process Chains

With Simufact Forming you can model the entire production process chain for a part or system.

Simufact Forming begins the chain with the output from leading casting simulation programs, then applies the initial heat treatment and open die forging process, with its numerous blows, passes and heats; and finishes with the final heat treatment. In the case of semi-finished products that have been forged, their further processing by forming and cutting operations can be simulated seamlessly. An example process chain may start from ingots, on to open die forging, sheet metal rolling, and deep drawing to mechanical joining and welding (with Simufact Welding), including heating, cooling, and heat treatment processes.

Application spectrum for Simufact.forming Open Die Forging


  • Cogging with one or two manipulators
  • Radial forging with or without mandrel
  • Rotary swaging
  • Axial and tangential shell forging
  • Partial rotary forging
  • Your specific process with its individual control via programming or customization
App. Material Steel
Material Steel


  • Steels
  • Nickel-based alloys
  • Super alloys such as Inconel, Hastelloy, Waspaloy, Incoloy, Nimonic
  • Nonferrous metals such as titanium, aluminum and their alloys

A Realistic Environment for Open Die Forging

For a realistic simulation of open die forging processes, Simufact.forming takes into account the typical environment of incremental forming:

  • Control of the process based on a pass-schedule close to production with automatic determination for the number of necessary blows and strokes
  • Manipulator and support elasticity
  • Pre-definition of the manipulator clamp force and of the maximum press force
  • Positioning and motion based on current geometry
  • Flexible, seamless integration of heating and cooling processes

Optimization Targets

Reach your optimization targets with Simufact Forming Open Die Forging

  • Determination of the necessary forging strategy
  • Optimize the pass-schedule
  • Minimize the number of heats
  • Analyze forces and energies
  • Avoid forging errors
  • Maintain the required material and component properties
  • Adjust the required microstructure
  • Comply with the temperature range required for forming
  • Increase geometric precision
  • Minimize charge weight and machining

Functional Highlights

Utilize the functional advantages of Simufact Forming Open Die Forging

  • Accurate results from hexahedron elements
  • Special meshing algorithms for pipes and shells
  • Elasto-plastic and thermo-mechanical coupling in the material model for precise modeling of the stress-strain state, internal stress and the final geometry
  • Modeling of microstructure and phase transformation
  • Modeling of blowholes and pore densification
  • Optional consideration of kinematic hardening based on the Chaboche Model
  • Easy to operate with templates and libraries in the language of manufacturing engineers
  • Unique process modeling with rigid-body motions allows for realistic component motions without numerical instabilities and perfect volume constancy of the workpiece
  • Process modeling can be designed to be as complex as necessary in respect to the number of dies, the number of degrees of freedom and the boundary conditions without losing ease of use
  • Control of complex kinematics based on the simulation progress enables realistic simulation results
  • Automatic linking of all process stages
  • Fast 3D simulation thanks to parallel computing with multiprocessor work stations and cluster systems

References Open Die Forging

A great number of users, among them leading machinery manufacturers, trust Simufact’s simulation technology. Among others, the following companies apply Simufact Forming Open Die Forging:

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