The application group Joining covers all processes that create a long-term connection between the two joining partners at the joint. The transfer of forces between the two joined components can be carried out by a form-locked, friction-locked or adhesively joined connection. Typical joining methods are, for example, arc welding, laser or electron beam welding, resistance spot welding, brazing and mechanical joining.
Arc welding processes (SMAW, GMAW [MIG], GTAW [TIG], SAW, …) are of the highest economic importance due to their flexible application and relatively low equipment costs for both robotic and/ or manually controlled joining. Due to a high melting rate and a high gap-bridging ability these processes are found most notably, in steel plants, power stations and shipbuilding.
Laser Beam welding is a thermal joining process, in which a component is heated and welded by a laser beam. It is a high-end process for application cases requiring the highest degree of precision. A huge advantage of laser beam welding lies in the relatively narrow heat affected zone.
Electron Beam welding is a thermal joining process, in which a component is heated and welded by electron beam. It is a high-end process for application cases requiring the highest degree of precision. A huge advantage of electron beam welding lies in the relatively narrow heat affected zone.
Pressure welding stands for a group of joining processes in which components are joined by heating and compression. Heat can be generated either via current (resistance welding) or by using friction (friction welding).
Resistance Spot Welding is a pressure welding process during which the sheets are pressed together locally with the help of fitted copper electrode welding guns. The electrical current between the weld guns causes a heating and melting of the joining partners, creating a small circular welded area between them.
Brazing is a thermal joining process which connects metal components with melted filler material. The filler usually has lower melting point compared to components. Main advantages of brazing lies in relatively low heat input and the capability to create a joint of considerable strength and durability.
Stress relieving reduces residual stresses in the assembly after welding. Usually the application of this heat treatment method involves controlled heating of the assembly, a certain holding period at elevated temperature as well as controlled cooling.
Forming processes that cause a mechanical interlock between the pieces. Mechanical joining includes riveting methods such as; punch riveting, self-piercing riveting and blind riveting, as well as clinching technologies such pressure joining, clinching and toxing.
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