Forming processes conducted significantly below the recrystallization temperature of the material. These processes include typical upsetting and extrusion processes (e.g. for the production of bolts, nuts and rivets), but can also include coining, cold hobbing, thread rolling and last but not least drawing processes (e.g. wire drawing, tube drawing and profile drawing).
Forming processes conducted above the recrystallization temperature of the material. A typical process is hot forging, including closed die hot forging, auxiliary processes such as heating and cooling, cutting processes and preform operations (e.g. upsetting, bending, forge rolling and cross wedge rolling) as well as extrusion processes.
Forming of sheet metal. Sheet metal forming includes: Drawing processes (e.g. deep drawing, reverse drawing, collaring, tapering and stretching), wall ironing, blanking, stamping and bending, fine blanking, coining, roll forming, draw bending, molding, pressure forming, roller spinning, pull-through drawing and more.
Forming processes in which the shape of the workpiece is changed incrementally (i.e. step-by-step) by repeated, local forming using geometrically simple dies which move relative to the workpiece. Open-die forging includes among others cogging, radial forging, rotary swaging, shell forging and rotational partial forging.
Forming processes in which the material is formed between two or more rotating dies (rollers). Examples of rolling processes include; flat and profile rolling, spinning, flow forming and reduction rolling.
Special rolling method for the manufacturing of seamless rings with related sub-methods such as; radial ring rolling, radial-axial ring rolling and axial closed die rolling.
Methods in which, metallic workpieces (mainly steel pieces) are temporarily heated for the targeted improvement of the material’s properties.
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