Articles

Specialist Knowledge

Below is a selection of professional articles from technical periodicals and scientific publications - from and about Simufact - on the subjects of forming, welding and additive simulation.

 

Technical Articles

Simulation-based numerical optimization of arc welding process for reduced distortion in welded structures

Article published in "Finite Elements in Analysis and Design", Volume 84, July 2014, Pages 54–64

Authors:

M. Islam (a), A. Buijk (b), M. Rais-Rohani (a, c), K. Motoyama (a, c)

(a) Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA
(b) Simufact-Americas LLC, Plymouth, MI 48170-4347, USA
(c) Department of Aerospace Engineering, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA

Vorschau Fachartikel With the increasing pressure on the industry to save material, engineers are forced to come up with incremental forming processes like Radial Forming and Flow Forming. These processes are characterized by the excellent workpiece properties of the formed zones, the great variety geometries in net shape quality. It seems that the two processes are similar, but a closer examination of the stress state shows differences. This paper deals with the different processes of radial forging and flow forming and their stress states. The simulation of these processes with FEM models, carried out with the software SIMUFACT, allows a view into the forming zone. The investigations give an overview about the difference of the material flow during the forming process. These views guide the way to a useful industrial application of Radial Forming and Flow Forming.

This article is available via

ScienceDirect

Modelling the section rolling process and microstructures of the rolling stock by latest simulation toolscess for reduced distortion in welded structures

DER KALIBREUR, July 2013, Magazine 74/2013 (3,3 MB)

Authors:

Dr. Ralph Bernhardt, Simufact Engineering GmbH
Dr. Franz-Dieter Philipp, Mannstaedt GmbH

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Aluminium Automotive Rivet Forming

Artikel FASTENER TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, August 2012 (1,5 MB)

Author:

Mike Walker, Omni-Lite Industries

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Study on the determination of optimal parameters for the simulation of the forming process of thick sheets

Article released on occasion of the 4ª Conferência Internacional de Conformação de Chapas / 1º BrDDRG (936,8 KB)

Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil, 8-10 Oct, 2014

Authors:

Ibson Ivan Harter, João Henrique Corrêa de Souza - Bruning Tecnometal Ltda, Brazil
Arjaan Buijk, Zach Pursell - Simufact-Americas LLC

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Die Life Optimization by numerical modelling with Simufact.forming

Article FOCUS, June 2013, Issue 2/2013 (951,6 KB)

Authors:

Dr. Gabriel Mc Bain - Simufact India Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India
Dr. Hendrik Schafstall - Simufact Engineering GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
Raman Gupta - Kadkraft Systems Pvt. Ltd., Chandigarh, India

 

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Innovative Simulations of Sheet Metal Forming Processes with Dominating Triaxiality

Article published on occasion of the IDDRG conference in Mumbai, India
November 25-29, 2012 (2,6 MB)

Authors:

Dr. Ingo Neubauer, Dr. Gabriel Mc Bain, Simufact Engineering GmbH

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Simulating Ring Rolling

Article published in FORGING magazine, July/August 2011 (1,7 MB)

Author:

Arjaan Buijk, Simufact Engineering 

A special module for ring-rolling simulation has matured and achieved acceptance by the industry, and new developments lie ahead.

 

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Simulating the effects of billet heating Thermprof

Article published in FORGING magazine, January/February 2010 (1,2 MB)

ABP Induction and Simufact research, develop and present new technology for simulating the effects of billet heating
in the hot forging process.

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The same goal

Article published in the German professional magazine bbr September 2015. (2.520 kB)

 
Interview with CEO Michael Wohlmuth at Simufact's16th RoundTable Simulating Manufacuring in Marburg.

 

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How to prevent premature tool failure

This article has been released in the German professional magazine Wire 2/ 2016.

FEM simulation programs currently constitute a powerful and widely used instrument for the design of processing stages, the optimisation of material flows and forecasting of die wear. They are used as standard in many cold- and hot-forming plants for the design and configurations of dies. 

Author:

Mr. Gabriel Mc Bain, Simufact Engineering GmbH

Mr. Bernhard Toennesmann, Möhling GmbH & Co. KG

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Design, Control and Optimization of Process Chains

Bulk-metal forming processes contribute to the efficient, sustainable use of resources through their preceise design and the implementation of process combinations. The design of process chains is used to achieve targeted from material characteristics and is based on the premise of fast and flexible production - with a simultaneous reduction of costs. 

Article published in: FORGEmag, August 2016

Authors:

Dirk Klug, Schuler Pressen GmbH, Germany
Hendrik Schafstall, Simufact Engineering GmbH, Germany
Markus Bergmann, Fraunhofer IWU, Germany

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Additive Manufacturing -From Trial and Error to a True Revolution

Additive Manufacturing -From Trial and Error to a True Revolution

By Dominic Gallello, CEO of MSC Software

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Numerical simulation of the distortion in conventional laser and fluxless laser-plasma brazing of aluminum using Simufact.welding
Numerical simulation of the distortion in conventional laser and fluxless laser-plasma brazing of aluminum using Simufact.welding

Brazing is a common technology for joining of aluminum components. Besides conventional methods, laser brazing is about to be established as a standard brazing technology. It offers several advantages compared to welding, e.g. less thermal induced stresses and less rework of the seam surface.

Article published in: DVS Berichte, 9th. Int. Congress Aluminium Brazing

Download lecture papers

Author: 

Khazan P. (Hamburg / Germany), simufact engineering

Radel. T. (Bremen / Germany)

Woizeschke, P. (Bremen / Germany)

 

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Method for efficient determination of material properties for modelling aluminium welding processes
Thumbnail - Method for efficient determination

The trend in the automotive and aircraft industry is moving towards customized designs by using compound structures, which provide an enlarged potential for weight and cost savings. Particularly, thermal joined lightweight structures made of aluminium alloys are characterized by moderate material and processing costs.

Authors: B. Striewe, J. Seiderer, A. von Hehl, A. Repenning, P. Khazan and H. Schafstall

Article published in: Materials Science & Engineering Technology, Vol. 47 - No. 11 - November 2016, Wiley-VCH

Available for purchase via: Wiley Online Library

 

Mastering the challenges faced in joining of formed components of different materials

Mastering the challenges faced in joining of formed components of different materials

Authors: 

Vinand Arabale, Simufact Engineering - India

Dr. Ralph Bernhardt, Simufact Engineering GmbH

Article published in: TRB Technical Reference Bullentin, Symposium on International Automotive Technology 2017

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New Forming Software Offers Improved Operation & Covers Additional Processes

New Forming Software Offers Improved Operation & Covers Additional Processes

 

Author:
Volker Mensing, Simufact Engineering GmbH

Article published in: Wire & Cable Technology International / March 2017

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Virtual Process Layout for Serial Automotive Produktion

Article published in FORGING magazine, 08/2010 (2,0 MB)

Authors:

Jürgen Schüler, Neumayer Tekfor Group
Michael Wohlmuth, Simufact Engineering GmbH

 

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Welding simulation supports process understanding

Article published in the INTERNATIONAL SHEET METAL REVIEW
February 2012 (754,9 KB)

Welding simulation supports process understanding in sheet metal forming, says Dr. Hendrik Schafstall.

 

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Full Automatic Vertical Ring Rolling Mill (VRRM) for Rolling Rings With Profiled Cross Section

Article published on occasion of the 18th International Forgemasters Meeting in Pittsburgh, PA (USA), September 12-15, 2011 (1,3 MB)

Authors:

E. Oka, R. Higashi, T. Nomiyama, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Machinery Mfg. Co., Ltd., Japan

 

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Smart FE-based Tool Design in Cold Forging

Article published in "Advanced Materials Research", Volume 1018, September 2014, Pages 309-316

Authors:

Kolja Andreas, Christoph Kiener, Ulf Engel, Marion Merklein

Available for purchase via Scientific.Net


In cold forging, the forming tool takes a key role as it determines accuracy and efficiency of forming process. The present study focuses on the FE based analysis of the influence of die material, interference within prestressing and die splitting on the stress state in and the elastic behaviour of the forming tool. The results reveal a great influence of the workpiece material and the tool layout on the outcome of the forming process and the corresponding tool stresses.

Scientific.Net

Numerical and analytical investigation of steel–aluminum knurled interference fits: Joining process and load characteristics

Arcticle published in "Journal of Materials Processing Technology", Volume 219, May 2015, Pages 286–294

Authors:

Stefan Kleditzsch, Birgit Awiszus, Michael Lätzer, Erhard Leidich

Available for purchase via ScienceDirect

This paper describes a verified numerical investigation of the joining process and the axial strength of steel/aluminum knurled interference fits (100Cr6/AlMgSi1). Knurled interference fits have huge potential, as demonstrated by their increasing industrial use. However, as is characteristic of state of the art of knurled interference fits, current research lacks generality and makes comparison difficult between results, especially in relation to geometry-, material- and load-specific results. The work in this paper provides detailed investigation results for the influence of shaft-chamfer angle, hub-diameter ratio and geometric interference on knurled interference fits. This includes the type of joining process as well as joining force and axial strength. The joining process is essential for axial strength as well as for the transmission behavior of the connection. Finally, a new approach for the analytical computation of the joining force is presented.

ScienceDirect

Simulation of the cold forging process in fastener manufacture

Authors:

Umut İncea, Norm Fasteners Cooperation 35620 Çiğli, İzmir, Turkey
Mustafa Güdenb, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Dynamic Testing and Modeling Laboratory, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe, Urla, Izmir, Turkey

This study reports two case studies of the cold forging simulation in fastener production.

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The Simulation Game

Article published in the INTERNATIONAL SHEET METAL REVIEW
November 2015 (413 KB)

Interview with CEO Michael Wohlmuth at the Blechexpo 2015

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Continuous Simulation

Article published in the German professional magazine BLECH June 2015 (3.810 kB)

Authors:

Dr.-Ing. Hendrik Schafstall (Managing Director and CTO - Simufact Engineering GmbH)
Dr.-Ing. Ingo Neubauer (Branch Manager Kassel - Simufact Engineering GmbH)
Dipl.-Ing. Julian Litzkow (Engineering Services - Simufact Engineering GmbH)

New potentials realized through process chain simulation using a crash box as an example

 

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Open-Die Forging Simulation

This article has been released in the FORGE magazine

Author:

Arjaan Buijk, Simufact Engineering

 

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Welding Simulation in Car Body Construction

Authors:

Raphael Thater, Philipp Wiethop and Michael Rethmeier

In this article, numerical welding simulation is used to deal with thhe challenge to find the optimal set-up within his large parameter space.

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Distortion Optimisation through Welding Simulation

Although they have already been in use for decades, welding processes are still some of the most mathematically complex methods that can be described. The reason for this is the localised heat input, with its very short heating and cooling periods and the related effects on the mechanical and metallurgical properties in the fusion zone. Thanks to the availability of high-power computers, numerical computer programs make it possible for the thermo-mechanical properties of welded structures to be reproduced in numerical simulations.

Article published in: ATZoffhighway worldwide, Issue 1/2017

Autors:
Dr.-Ing. Marius Gatzen, Simufact Engineering GmbH
Jochen Seifert, Edag Engineering Schweiz GmbH

Available for purchase via: Springer Professional

Order printed edition

"Simufact Welding 7" speeds up simulations of sheet metal structures

"Simufact from Hamburg/Germany, an MSC Software company, brings to market "Simufact Welding 7", the next version of its solution for the simulation of welding processes. Functional novelties such as solid-shell elements, simplified calculation methods for resistance spot welding processes and more flexible consideration of clamping concepts: "Simufact Welding 7" promises shorter processing times, more accurate results, and a more intuitive operational use of the software."

Article published in: Welding and Cutting 16 (2017) No. 5, p. 290

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Cutting simulations using a commercially available 2D/3D FEM software for forming.

Chip formation simulations require either sophisticated material based element removal or deactivation routines, or a powerful remeshing
procedure. Therefore the accuracy of all chip formation simulations significantly depends on the FEM-software as well as the material data.
Over the course of the past years, a few select commercial programs became the pre-eminent choice for chip formation simulations. In this
work, the software simufact.forming, which is not one of those few programs widely in use, has been employed for 2D and 3D chip formation
simulations. Orthogonal cutting experiments with AISI4140 were conducted and subsequently modeled, including the cutting edge

Article published in: 16th CIRP Conference on Modelling of Machining Operations, June 2017

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Designing, manufacturing and processing of Tailored Blanks in a sheet-bulk metal forming process

Sheet-bulk metal forming is an innovative method for the manufacturing of functional components by applying bulk metal forming processes or combined sheet and bulk metal forming processes to sheet metal. The investigated process combines deep drawing and upsetting. Occurring 2D and 3D stress and strain states lead to challenges regarding the material flow control during the forming process to ensure a high die filling and accurate part geometry.

Authors: Robert Schultea , Philipp Hildenbranda, Michael Lechnera and Marion Merkleina

Article published in: Procedia Manufacuring, Juli 2017

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Impact of Simulations on Cold-Forging Designs

The predictive value of process and product modeling by finite-element simulations has helped in the cold forging of fasteners. In this case, the punch used in a whell-hot forging was reconsidered and redesigned to eliminate the punch "sticking" in the hollow section of the forging.

Authors: Cenk Kilicasalan, Tayfur Yavuzbarut, Unmut Ince - Norm Civata San. ve Tic A.S. (Norm Fasteners Co.) Turkey

Article published in: FORGE magazine, August 2017

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Resource-efficient development of thermally highly resistant engine components of hybrid metal composites - experiments and numerical analysis

Resource-efficient development of thermally highly resistant engine components of hybrid metal composites - experiments and numerical analysis

Authors: Dirk Landgrebe, Lutz Krüger, Nadine Schubert, Eric Jentsch, Tim Lehnert

Article published in: Procedia Engineering, November 2017 

One remark in our own interest: With the release of Simufact Forming 15 users can simulate inductive heating.

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On the Cold Forging of 6082 H13 and T4 Aluminum Alloy Bushes

In this study, manufacturability of Ø23x36 aluminum bushes with EN AW 6082-AlSi1MgMn aluminum alloy was investigated. Two different pretreated EN AW 6082 alloys, H13 (strain-hardened) and T4 (solution annealing and naturally aged) were used in the present study and cold forging performance of the alloys was evaluated comparatively. Compression tests were carried out at different temperatures and strain rates to model the flow stress of the alloys.

Authors: Buğra Karahan, Umut İnce, Sezgin Yurtdaş, Emrah Kılınçdemir, Fuat Can Ağarer,Cenk Kılıçaslan

Article published in: Acedemic Platform, September 2017

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Numerical Investigation of the Oxide Scale Deformation Behaviour with Consideration of Carbon Content during Hot Forging

Due to increasing product requirements the numerical simulation has become a powerful tool for the effective and efficient design of individual process steps as well as entire process chains. In order to model hot forging processes with finite element based numerical methods realistic models are required which consider the detailed mathematical description of the material behaviour during the forging process, the surface phenomena at die and workpiece as well as machine kinematics.

Authors: B.-A. Behrensa, R. Kawallab, B. Awiszusc, A. Bouguechaa, M. Ullmannb, M. Grafc

Article published in: Procedia Engineering, September 2017

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Identification of tribological mechanisms of shot peened steel surfaces for an application in sheet-bulk metal forming

An increasing demand on highly-integrated high-strength lightweight components, especially in the automotive industry, motivates the need for the development of the new class of manufacturing processes sheet-bulk metal forming (SBMF). The use of SBMF for producing those components leads to many challenges. This is due to the fact that the processes are characterized by a successive and/or simultaneous occurrence of different load conditions regarding stress and
strain states.These conditions influence the material flow and thus the geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. To improve the product quality, methods to control the material flow are needed. 

Authors: Maria Löfflera, Ulf Engela, Kolja Andreasa, Marion Merkleina

Article published in: 13th International Conference on Shot Peening, September 2017

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Welding Thermal Simulation and Metallurgical Characteristics Analysis in WAAM for 5CrNiMo Hot Forging Die Remanufacturing

In order to analyze the performance of wire and arc additive manufacturing for 5CrNiMo hot forging die remanufacturing, the FEM numerical model of multi-layer and multi-pass welding was built. The thermal distribution and cycle in weld beads were investigated, and the simulation results conformed to the experimental measurements well. Then the microstructure and microhardness in different layers and the heat affected zone in the substrate was analyzed after the experiment of weld overlaying, and the influence of the thermal cycle on the metallurgical characteristics was also discussed. 

Authors: Zeqi Hua, Xunpeng Qina, Tan Shaoa,

Article published in: Procedia engineering, September 2017

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Effect of Hardening Rule for Spring Back Behavior of Forging

back behavior is one of the most important factors on the discrepancy, in not only sheet metal forming but also cold forging processes. Spring back behavior is one of the most important factors on the discrepancy, in not only sheet metal forming but also cold forging process. For cold forging process, it is difficult to observe the change in geometry of forgings before and after release of tools/dies, since the workpiece during forging is covered by tools/dies in most cases.

Authors: Shinobu Naritaa, Kunio Hayakawab, Yoshihiro Kubotab,
Takafumi Haradab, Takeshi Uemoric

Article published in: Procedia engineering, September 2017

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Resource-efficient development of thermally highly resistant engine components of hybrid metal composites - experiments and numerical analysis

Resource-efficient development of thermally highly resistant engine components of hybrid metal composites - experiments and numerical analysis

Authors: Dirk Landgrebe, Lutz Krüger, Nadine Schubert, Eric Jentsch, Tim Lehnert

Article published in: Procedia Engineering, November 2017 

One remark in our own interest: With the release of Simufact Forming 15 users can simulate inductive heating. 

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Predicting Material Fracture in Cold Forging

Care should be taken in modeling the cold forging of fasteners through computer simulations. It has been shown that pre-forming operations have significant effect on predicting cracking based on mathematical damage models. Pre-forming operations such as wire drawing and bar cropping should be included in the simulation model for highest accuracy and best predictive results. 

Authors: Cenk Kilicasalan - Norm Civata San. ve Tic A.S. (Norm Fasteners Co.) Turkey

Article published in: FORGE magazine, December 2017

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Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Overheated Aluminum Droplet Wetting a Zinc-Coated Steel Surface

Wetting steel surfaces with liquid aluminum without the use of flux can be enabled by the presence of a zinc-coating. The mechanisms behind this effect are not yet fully understood. Research results on single aluminum droplets falling on commercial galvanized steel substrates revealed the good wetting capability of zinc coatings independently from the coating type. The final wetting angle and length are apparently linked to the time where zinc is liquefied during its contact with the overheated aluminum melt. 

Authors: Marius Gatzen, Peer Woizeschke, Tim Radel, Claus Thomy and Frank Vollertsen 

Article published in: MDPI, December 2017

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Development of calibration of rolling round steel № 40 from 150 x 150 mm billets in 320 JSC „SSGPO“ mill

Тhis paper presents results obtained in the course of development of new calibration rolls for rolling round steel № 40 in 320 JSC „SSGPO“ mill. There is an untapped potential of the rolling mill capacity during the production of round barswith a diameter of 40 mm from initial 120 mm × 120 mm billets. The solution of this problem refers to the mill translation to production of round steel with a diameter of 40 mm from initial 150 mm × 150 mm billets.  

Authors: Abdrakhman B. Naizabekov, Bereke S. Mukhametkaliev, Sergey N. Lezhnev,
Evgeniy A. Panin, Evgeniy V. Andreev 

Article published in: Naizabekov, Bereke S. Mukhametkaliev, Sergey N. Le, January 2018

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Success hinges on AM

 

Simufact's Micahel Wohlmuth and Michael Tran describe LightHinge+, a co-engineering project that used the extended possibilities of additive production to develop a lightweight solution with fewer components and simpler assembly. 

Article published in: ams magazine, January-February 2018

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Residual Stresses: Friend or Foe?

Residual stresses are inherently introduced to forged products during their deformation.
These stresses influence the integrity of load-bearing parts. Their effects depend on their nature
(tensile or compressive), location and magnitude. Tensile residual stresses’ integrity can be very
detrimental, particularly for products used in the as-forged condition. In contrast, compressive
residual stresses can be a lifesaver, if tailored appropriately. Hence, numerical and experimental
methods should be carried out to characterize the residual stresses, and they should be taken into
account for forged products to prevent premature failure and to improve service life.

Authors: M. Burak Toparli, Sezgin Yurtdas¸, Emrah Kılınçdemir, Barıs¸ Tanrıkulu – NORM Group; Izmir, Turkey

Article published in: FORGEmag - April 2018

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Without Simulation, no way

Simufact is one of the pioneers in the exciting field of simulation for metallic additive manufacturing. Hendrik Schafstall,
General Manager & CTO with the vendor, explains state-of-the-art applications.

Interview with Dr. Hendrik Schaftstall, Managing Director & CTO, simufact engineering gmbh

Published in: d1g1tal AGENDA, 1-2018

 

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Preliminary analysis of a rotary comprassion test

The paper addresses the problem of material fracture in cross rolling processes. A new test based on rotary compression for determining limit values of the damage function after the Cockroft-Latham criterion is proposed. A FEM analysis is performed to determine the stress and strain states in a workpiece subjected to this test. The numerical results demonstrate that the axial region of the workpiece is characterized by the presence of alternating tensile and compressive stresses conducive to fracture. The distribution of the Cockroft-Latham integral in the axial region of the workpiece is determined.

Authors: Zbigniew Pater, Patrycja Walczuk, Konrad Lis, Łukasz Wójcik

Article published in: Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal - June 2018

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Optimization of Selective Laser Melting by Evaluation Method of Multiple Quality Characteristics

Article describes the adoption of the Taguchi method in selective laser melting process of sector of combustion chamber by numerical and natural experiments for achieving minimum temperature deformation. The aim was to produce a quality part with minimum amount of numeric experiments. For the study, the following optimization parameters
(independent factors) were chosen: the laser beam power and velocity; two factors for compensating the effect of the residual thermal stresses: the scale factor of the preliminary correction of the part geometry and the number of additional reinforcing elements. 

Authors: A I Khaimovich, I S Stepanenko and V G Smelov 

Article published in: IOP Publishing - September 2018

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Additively Manufactured Lightweight Hood Hinge

Edag, voestalpine and simufact have developed the additively manufactured LightHinge+ engine hood hinge. The worthwile result: As well as being half the weight of conventional designs, it also incorporates a pedestrian protection function. The component can be manufactured without tools, is optimized for warpage and requires only minimum post-processing.

 

Authors: Dr.-Ing. Martin Hillebrecht, Edag Engineering GmbH, Sebastian Flügel, Edag Engineering Gmbh, Dr.-Ing. Eric Klemp, voestalpine Additive Manufacturing Center GmbH and Dr.-Ing. Patrick Mehmert, simufact engineering gmbh

Published in: 120 Years of ATZ 

 

The article is available online via Springer Fachmedien

 

 

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Penelope Friebel

Penelope Friebel
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